PSY 361 Behavioral and Cognitive Methods for Treating Pain

PSY 361 Behavioral and Cognitive Methods for Treating Pain

PSY 361 Behavioral and Cognitive Methods for Treating Pain

Behavioral and Cognitive Methods for Treating Pain. This is a Content Question Board. Please view the instructions for interacting with this type of discussion forum here.

Writing the Content Question Answer and Providing a Response:

Content Question Answer Posting: The focus of this Content Question Discussion Board activity will be on pain treatment strategies. 

You will be posting on the approach to pain management that is listed below with the first letter of your last name. In your discussion, assess how psychological methods might be effectively employed to assist patients to manage and cope with pain. Be sure to distinguish how you might utilize your strategy differently with patients across the lifespan.

Last Names beginning with:


A through C: Operant Approach (techniques to extinguish pain behavior and reinforce well behavior)

D through F: Fear Reduction (reducing fear of pain to minimize behaviors that worsen function)

G through J: Relaxation and Biofeedback (techniques to reduce stress)

K through N: Cognitive – active coping (distraction, non-pain imagery, and/or pain redefinition to modify the
pain experience)

O through Q: Cognitive – pain acceptance (cognitive strategies to promote pain acceptance and improve

R through T: Hypnosis, Stimulation Therapies, and/or Animal-assisted

U through Z: Interpersonal Therapy (talk therapy to promote insight into the pain experience) 

Your original post should be a minimum of 300 words. 

You must include a minimum of one scholarly or peer- reviewed reference published within the last five years to support your work. All references should be cited in APA format as outlined by the Ashford Writing Center.

Option B: Diabetes Mellitus and the Health Belief Model

Focus of the Final Paper

The course of illness can be influenced by biological, psychological, and/or social factors covering a broad range of topics that include stress, coping, and behaviors that either promote health and prevent illness, or contribute to the development of clinical problems. Health and wellness are important to our daily lives and this is true even in the context of being diagnosed with a chronic illness such as diabetes mellitus. The interplay between emotions, cognitive, and behavioral/physical factors can affect all aspects of health and illness.

 Individual differences such as culture, ethnicity, lifestyle, religion, gender, identity development, financial status, and social support should be considered when analyzing the individual’s response to a chronic illness. Numerous research studies have investigated the impact of one or more of these factors in terms of the effect on chronic disease outcomes. 

These outcomes can include symptom management and/or progression of the severity of the disease.

Explanatory theories often describe factors that contribute to health problems, or interfere with prevention activities, and thus provide targets for change. One such theory is the Health Belief Model (HBM) which addresses perceptions of the health problem. 

These perceptions include the degree of threat in terms of susceptibility and severity, any benefits to be obtained by avoiding the perceived threat, and various internal (e.g., self-efficacy) and external (e.g., barriers to care) factors that influence the individual’s decision to act. Other theories emphasize motivations that influence a continuum of stages of behavioral change.

 The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change is a theory of this type. The response to chronic illness and the illness experience itself can be described by these models. In managing chronic disease, there are coping strategies and behavior changes that support optimal outcomes and therapeutic interventions can be designed for greater effectiveness by using these two models.