Behavior in Psychology Presentation Paper
Behavior in Psychology Presentation Paper
Using the topic from Weeks 1 and 2, prepare a PowerPoint presentation suitable for an introductory psychology course that would be offered to undergraduate students. Behavior in Psychology Presentation Paper
Your presentation should include the following:
- Be sure to include a title slide.
- Introduce your audience to the topic.
- Provide an overview and background information on the topic.
- Explain at least three key points about the topic.
- Discuss at least two research findings presented in your research articles.
- Summarize the key points.
- Your final slide(s) should be your reference slide(s).
Incorporate appropriate animations, transitions, and graphics as well as speaker notes for each slide. The speaker notes may be comprised of brief paragraphs or bulleted lists. Speaker’s notes are located underneath the slide itself (where you see “click to add notes”).
Support your presentation with at least five scholarly resources published in the last 5 years. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources may be included.
Length: 12-15 slides (with a separate reference slide)
Notes Length: 200-350 words for each slide
Be sure to include citations for quotations and paraphrases on each slide with references in APA format and style where appropriate. Save the file as PPT
The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Employee and Organizational Success
Ghasabeh, Soosay & Reaiche (2015) posit that transformational leadership is tasked with linkages between individual outcomes for the derivation of overall organizational success. A transformational leader seeks to grow the personal attributes of their followers, such as self-esteem and the realization of self-actualization. By transforming the views and perceptions of individuals concerning practices of life, transformational leaders can drive organizational success effortlessly, through investing in the specific qualities of the employees or followers (Ahmed et al., 2014; Nawaz & Khan, 2016). Transformational leadership is highly individualized; the leader-follower relationship is of utmost importance and is given priority. The needs of the employee, such as satisfaction, empowerment, growth of personal attributes, and the development of self-efficacy skills, are the most important goals for any transformation leader.
The primary goal of transformational leaders is to turn over patterns about phenomena that exist and derive new views, values, and beliefs that drive the firm or the larger group to the ultimate goal. According to Maduka et al. (2018), transformational leadership is responsible for the numerous transformation that led successful companies such as IBM and Ford to their current positions in the world of business to date. Transformational leaders, besides other attributes, possess other specific characteristics, including creativity, responsibility, confession, respect, team orientation, and coaching (Ahmad et al., 2014). Aspects of transformational leadership that are relevant in organizational management include inspiration, individual support for and of employees and stimulation of the intellect. These aspects drive the thematic classification upon which the current literature review on transformational leadership, employee, and organizational support will be based. Behavior in Psychology Presentation Paper
Atmojo (2015) suggests that transformational leadership and charismatic leadership are similar, only with different approaches to how they deliver their skill and practice of leadership. Idealized influence, however, is a common practice of numerous practitioners of the transformational leadership style in business or organizational management. Possession of idealized influence as an attribute results in a situation where followers and employees perceive the leader as a role model. The absence of idealized influence in charismatic leadership approach is what sets the two styles apart, even though seemingly related. When a transformational leader is charismatic, it is an additional attribute, in which they possess both idealized influence and charisma, such that building the self-confidence of their followers is their primary objective.
Transformational leadership encompasses numerous attributes and practices. In its application in organizational management, transformational leadership has been proven to have a plethora of positive outcomes for businesses. The literature review presented in this paper seeks to evaluate the findings of other scholars on the impact of transformational leadership on employee and company success. Possible gaps in the existing literature will be identified and discussed as per the dictates of the paper objectives. Moreover, the similarities and differences of various research on the topic will be presented.
According to the discussion of Nawaz & Khan (2016) on transformational leadership, the followers are intended to trust, respect, and admire the leader, who is characterized as the role model. Dartey-Baah (2015) discusses the theory of transformational leadership from the perspective of the deeds conducted by the leader to drive positive outcome in the followers. These acts include increased awareness of the importance of work, pressing the focus of the followers to the goals of the organization and activating needs of the followers (employees) into the achievement of these goals. However, while Nawaz & Khan (2016) suggest that charisma is part of the transformational leadership attributes, Ahmad et al. (2014) opine that charisma is necessary, but is not an entirely essential or sufficient characteristic that a transformational leader must possess. Nawaz & Khan (2016) argues that a leader may be charismatic but not wholly an altogether transformational in the way he handles the organizational management or the treatment and motivation of his employees. Dartey-Baah (2015) supports the presentation of Nawaz & Khan (2016) regarding the transformational leadership theory by presenting that the essential tools for a transformational leader include possession of the individual characteristics associated with transformational leadership.
The proposition of Antonakis (2017) is that charisma is important for transformational leadership in its application in organizations. One of the major aspects of charisma is its ability to evoke emotion in followers regarding their leader, in such a way that they respect the opinion and suggestion of the leader at any given point. Additionally, the author presents that transformational leadership should be grounded in moral foundations of individualization of follower care and guidance, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, and motivation. The presentations of Atnonakis (2017) concerning the moral foundation of transformational leadership match those of Dartey-Baah (2015).
Widiana (2017) introduces a different approach to the importance of transformational leadership regarding organizational success. The scholar posits that ethics of the leader in his program organization, development of a vision and their articulation is the major moral facet of transformational leadership in organizations. A leader should be able to derive ethical dictates of a mission that the followers are to work towards that, not only benefits the organization but also motivates the employees to pursue better versions of themselves. Secondly, according to Antonakis (2017), the leader ought to have impeccable and morally upright character, which in the view of the followers, is a relevant avenue to follow him or her as a role model. The third moral dictate as presented by Ahmed et al. (2014) of transformational leadership is the morality of the process of achieving engagement with the employees and the society at large in the course of conducting organizational mandate.
Ahmed et al. (2014) opinions of the theory of transformational leadership highly contrast those of other scholars on the aspect of charisma and how much of it is necessary for a leader to be regarded as transformational. The difference in opinion is inspired by the fact that while Ahmed et al. (2014) made assumptions about the theory and the awareness of the importance of tasks to the leader, such assumptions are not made by other scholars, hence opening up the perspective from which they view the transformational leadership theory. Despite these differences in the perception of different scholars on the concept of transformational leadership, it is undeniable that all of the factors presented by the scholars are equal contributors to the definition and implementation of transformational leadership. Behavior in Psychology Presentation Paper
The inspiration that breeds motivation provides followers of a transformational leader with a purpose and a feeling of identity regarding their work. Inspiration motivation is achieved by facilitation of behavior that makes employees or followers feel committed to the ultimate goal of the organization and the vision they aim to accomplish as an organizational unit (Widiana, 2017). Behavior in Psychology Presentation Paper
Findings from a study by Atmojo (2015) posit that inspirational motivation is the process by which a transformational leader provides the employees (followers) with a challenge and an associated meaning of what they are seeking to achieve as a group. The description byAtmojo (2015) of inspirational motivation is similarly investigated by Dartey-Baah (2015), in which inspirational motivation was stated to be the ability of the specific leader to effectively pass information regarding a vision he has for the organization in a way that effortlessly drives his or her employees to partake in actions that lead to the achievement of the said vision.
Atmojo (2015) supports the definition of Dartey-Baah (2015) by stating that when a leader is inspirational, they can remain focused on achieving the goal, influencing their followers to stay focused too, even in the face of immense challenges or obstacles. Giving out inspirational motivation is being able to communicate concerning an interesting vision, applying symbols and demonstrations to drive the focus of subordinates and realization of appropriate targeted behavior that is focused on achieving the attractive vision (Atmojo, 2015; Nawaz & Khan, 2016; Dartey-Baah, 2015).
Organization managers can promote inspirational motivation among their employees to build on goodwill at the internal organizational level. Inspirational motivation can be achieved through the creation of an employee-friendly environment that makes it possible and easy for employees to openly communicate with their leaders and organizational managers (Masa’deh et al., 2015). One of the most critical dynamics of transformational leadership is the ability to communicate through the hierarchy effectively. Findings of a study by Al-Saiydh et al. (2015) found out that a worker-friendly organizational environment is capable of boosting motivation and inspiration of the employees, consequently increasing their loyalty to the organization. Similar presentations by Masa’deh, Maqableh & Karajeh (2014) opine that an employee can be individually motivated without leadership. However, it is utterly difficult and almost impossible to achieve successful leadership without motivated followers or employees.
Organizational success depends not only on the ability of the manager and the workers to achieve the superficial roles administered to them but also both the managers and the employees need to be continuously and sufficiently motivated to keep working for the ultimate organizational goals (Atmojo, 2015). As is agreed on by the scholars (Atmojo, 2015; Al-Saiydh et al., 2015; Masa’deh, Maqableh & Karajeh, 2014), not only does inspiration lead to motivation, it is indirectly responsible for many other factors that drive increased employee motivation, success, and output.
Long et al. (2014) posits that intellectual stimulation is the approach by leaders taken to make their followers analyze situations critically with the application of rationality. Intellectual stimulation promotes unique approaches to thinking, which result in problem-solving strategies in a dilemma, primarily when utilized in an organizational setting. A similar definition of intellectual stimulation is given by (Masa’deh et al., 2015), in which they opine that intellectual stimulation involves processes for the challenge of the status quo and use of high-level imagination to achieve solutions to problems that can yield motivation for the followers. A different perspective on intellectual stimulation is demonstrated by Dartey-Baah (2015) who opines that the dimension of transformational leadership is tasked with enabling followers and employees derive different and new solutions to existing problems and implementing these solutions in different ways.
In an organizational setting, a leader identifies an existing common problem and challenge it. By challenging these problems and confronting outdated idealizations associated with the problem, the leader motivates employees to think of new ways of handling the issues and better ways to confront the conventional methods that do not seem to yield plausible results (Long et al., 2014). Intellectual stimulation, as part of transformational leadership, motivates the followers, in the case of the organization, the employees, to draw on their creativity and innovativeness, making it possible to widen their scope of productivity. Followers need for achievement to which intellectual stimulation appeals (Maduka et al., 2018). Intellectual stimulation enhances the independence of thought in followers, encouraging them to make independent decisions.
According to Maduka et al. (2018), independence of employees increases their productivity, even in minimal supervision situations, highly increasing their success in productivity level. Since the goal of transformational leaders is to achieve innovativeness, the tendency to motivate the creation of the employee makes the employee approach their duties with immense innovativeness (Ahmed et al., 2014; Nawaz & Khan, 2016). The result of this synergy of innovativeness is successful outcomes for not only the employees but also for the organization (Maduka et al., 2018). Behavior in Psychology Presentation Paper
Various scholars have sought to investigate the influence of individualized consideration on follower productivity and the overall success of the team within which they belong. According to Long et al. (2014), a transformational leader seeks to provide specific attention to the needs of every employee individually, to achieve development by acting as a mentor. In a supportive environment, employers and their employees can relate at a personal level. An investigation by Dong et al. (2017) similarly presented that individualized consideration gives the leaders opportunities to interact with their employees at a personal level. Behavior in Psychology Presentation Paper
Ahmed et al. (2014) shift the concept of individualized consideration dimension of transformational leadership from it being an avenue for familiarity with employees to a channel for leaders providing support to the employees. Dong et al. (2017) and Long et al. (2014) propose that individualization enhances familiarity between followers and employers, promoting better communication in the hierarchy and allowing the leader to show support for the effort made by every follower (employee) in the pursuit of the original goal for the organizational success. As various individuals in an organization have differences, individualization makes sure that a consensus is achieved between these differences in such a way that a leader accord each employee what they individually need in terms of inspiration to achieve the organizational goals.
Ghasabeh, Soosay & Reaiche (2015) agree with the presentations of Dong et al. (2017) on individual consideration. However, the scholars introduce a new perspective from which individualization can be viewed. Ghasabeh, Soosay & Reaiche (2015) posit that one employee may need more motivation than another to achieve the goal, while one works better with additional autonomy than the next. The different needs of employees are what consequently yield internal dynamic capabilities that not only set up the employee for success, but also the entire organization (Ghasabeh, Soosay & Reaiche, 2015).
Charisma is one of the concepts that is mostly associated with transformational leadership, yet remains interestingly underexplored in the manner in which it contributes to transformational leadership. While some of the scholars state the similarities between charismatic and transformational leadership, they fail to effectively relate the two concepts, either with charisma as a facet of transformational leadership or as complementary methods. Research on this gap would widen the body of knowledge concerning transformational leadership and success. Secondly, the reviewed studies explain the impact of the facets of transformational leadership on the success of the employee and how it leads to organizational success. However, the specific processes involved in the application of all aspects have not been well explored. A third gap noticeable in the literature is the influence of transformational leadership directly on employee motivation and inspiration under the inspirational motivation facet. Investigation of the dynamic contributions of these concepts of transformational leadership would work effectively to widen the body of literature related to the topic.
Transformational leadership, as has been discussed, effectively provides critical stepping stones to the achievement of employee and organizational success. Through the various facets of the leadership model, it is possible to drive the multiple aspects of corporate employees to achieve a common goal for the success of the organization. According to Atmojo (2015), actions of transformational leaders all drive to the critical outcome that is employee satisfaction. Satisfied employees are more efficient and productive, compared to those that are not. Long et al. (2014) opine that individual consideration is the most productive approach of transformational leadership for the most increased levels of employee satisfaction for increased organizational success. A satisfied internal workforce results in an improved positive work environment increased willingness to work, and better customer retention due to better employees. Dong et al. (2017 among other scholars assert that with transformational leadership, increased motivation in the employees is what results in success in an organization, due to the increased drive to achieve the attractive communal vision fed to them by the leader.
In conclusion, transformational leadership indeed plays a significant role in the promotion of an employee and organizational success if well applied. Transformational leaders that approach their task with bold confidence report better results in their followers. Mobilization of followers (employees) to gain problem-solving and rationality skills is the most critical goal for transformational leaders, as these characteristics promote individuality and self-confidence to perform. From these and the presentations of the scholars in the reviewed literature, it is possible to conclude that among other factors, transformational leadership is a critical tool for overall firm performance and success.
Ahmad, F., Abbas, T., Latif, S., & Rasheed, A. (2014). Impact of transformational leadership on employee motivation in telecommunication sector. Journal of management policies and practices, 2(2), 11-25.
Al-Syaidh, N. H. J., Al-Lozi, M., & Al-Harrasi, J. S. (2016). Transformational leadership and its role on the effectiveness of employees’ behavior: A theoretical study. Journal of Business & Management (COES&RJ-JBM), 4, 14-35.
Antonakis, J. (2017). Charisma and the “new leadership.” J., Antonakis, DV Day,(Eds.), The nature of leadership, 56-81.
Atmojo, M. (2015). The influence of transformational leadership on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee performance. International research journal of business studies, 5(2).
Dong, Y., Bartol, K. M., Zhang, Z. X., & Li, C. (2017). Enhancing employee creativity via individual skill development and team knowledge sharing: Influences of dual‐focused transformational leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(3), 439-458.
Dartey-Baah, K. (2015). Resilient leadership: A transformational-transactional leadership mix. Journal of Global Responsibility, 6(1), 99-112. Behavior in Psychology Presentation Paper
Ghasabeh, M. S., Soosay, C., & Reaiche, C. (2015). The emerging role of transformational leadership. The Journal of Developing Areas, 49(6), 459-467. Behavior in Psychology Presentation Paper
Maduka, N. S., Edwards, H., Greenwood, D., Osborne, A., & Babatunde, S. O. (2018). Analysis of competencies for effective virtual team leadership in building successful organisations. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 25(2), 696-712.
Masa’deh, R., Maqableh, M., & Karajeh, H. (2014). A Theoretical Perspective on the Relationship between Leadership Development, Knowledge Management Capability, and Firm Performance. Asian Social Science, 10(6), pp. 128-137.
Masa’deh, R., Obeidat, B., Zyod, D., & Gharaibeh, A. (2015). The Associations among Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, Knowledge Sharing, Job Performance, and Firm Performance: A Theoretical Model. Journal of Social Sciences (COES&RJ-JSS), 4(2), pp. 848-866.
Nawaz, Z. A. K. D. A., & Khan_ PhD, I. (2016). Leadership theories and styles: A literature review. Leadership, 16, 1-7 Behavior in Psychology Presentation Paper